September 26 2011

And or &?

by Barbie in APA Style

When I’m editing an APA-formatted paper, I notice that I spend a lot of time changing “and” to ampersands and ampersands to “and.” APA uses both, so it is important to understand how to use them when referencing authors in your paper.

  • And: Use “and” when you are listing multiple authors within the text of your paper. For example, if you start your sentence by citing the authors — such as “According to Smith and Jones,” — you use “and.”
  • &: Use the ampersand when you’re listing authors by last name in an in-text citation. For example, if you’re paraphrasing content from a work with multiple authors, you would include their last names in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence, followed by the year of publication: (Smith & Jones, 2011).

An easy trick to help you remember when to use “and” and when to use the ampersand: Use “and” outside of parenthesis and the ampersand inside of them.